Posts from the ‘The 1866 Journal’ Category

Vocabulary words…the last page of her journal.

(The handwriting is very small on the final page of vocabulary words.)

Autocrat (?): an absolute sovereign

Hetat____: sacrifice of 100 oxen

Pyre: a funeral ___

__ander: a mean wretch

Battlement: a wall with enclosures

Turret: a little river

Censtaph (?): a monument

Amalgamate: to mix

Alie__ate: to transfer to another

Immaculate: without blemish

Reversible: that may be changed

Scenic: theatrical, dramatic

Lobbies: halls or openings

__ved: fettered, shackeled

Avena: a open place of gr__ing

Didactic: inclined to instruct

Automation: a machine maned by invisible ____

Atheist: one who claims the existence of God.

 

Deist: one who denies a revelation from God.

___ition: learning, knowledge

Espimaye (?): practice of employing spices

Erydipelas (?): an e__ption, It ____ _y’s fire

Legend: an incredible story.

Deprecated: pr___ed deliverance from

Chronology: a reckoning of time

Ethnography: a treatise of the ____ different ___ separately.

Pantehism: doctrine of the ______ to god.

Chalice: a communion cup

Anti___: those living on the opp__.

Aborigines: the first inhabitants

Cosmogony: history of creation

Topography: description of a particular place

Nucleus: a body around which something is collected(?)

Elliptical: oval

 

Lenuity (?) thinness

Barometer: an instrument to weight to air

Perih____: point of a planet’s orbit ____ and ____

Luminous light: enlightened

Naiad: a water nymph

Nereid: a sea nymph

Kaleidoscope: an optical instrument that exhibits a variety of beautiful coors.

Microscope: instrument for magnifying objects

Telescope: instrument for viewing

L___tion: a shifting

____: neat, elegant

Sarcophagus: a stone coffin

Sarcophoagous: flesh-eating

Summary: an abridged account

Supine: careless

Contour: general outlines of a face

Profile: side face, outlinie

Cynic: a morose man

Laconic: brief, expressive

Coyen (?): a cheat

I__partune: to urge, to press

Irrigate: to water

Curmudgeon: a miser

Probity: honesty, sincerity

Kra__: a village

Egotism: self-commendation

Emanate: to flow from

Unsophisticated: Pur__tless

Badinage: a playful discourse

Eclaircissement: act of explaining an affair

Elah: applause, renown

El___mosynary (?): living on charity

Comopa___ite: ditig___ of in___yoed

Contama____: conumtituous long ____

Physics: science of nature or ____

Metaphysics: science of the mind

Maxims

Maxims 

1

Education is the companion which no misfortune can depress nor crime can destroy. No enemy a__nate, no disposition enslave. At home a friend, abroad an introduction, in solitude a solace, and in society an ornament. It chastens vices, it guides virtue, it give at once grace & government to genius. Without it who is man? A splendid slave, a reasoning savage.

2

Forget not that life is like a flower which no sooner is blown that it begins to wither.

3

If there is a person to whom you feel a dislike that is the person of whom you ought never to speak.

4

When thou art tempted to throw a stone in thine anger, try if thou canst pick it up without bending thy back if not stop thy hand.

5

Though the world is wide enough for everyone to take a little & there appears no reason why we __stle & make one another unhappy as we pass along; yet so it is, we are continually thwarting & crossing each other at right angles; and some lose all sense of memory of what t___ which governed us at our first setting out.

6

An empty head & a full purse are more refreshed than a man of sense whose purse has been lightened by the unavoidable shafts of misfortune.

7

Beauty as the flowering blossom soon fades, but the divine excelled of the mind, like the medicinal virtues of a pl___ remains in it when all those charms are withered.

(The follow is cut of in the left margin. There appears to be pages that follow it that aren’t in the copy I have. Or perhaps the pages are out of order.)

8

____ the first action of manhood be to govern your passions, for he who knows how to govern himself, always becomes a favorite with society.

9

____tial duty. There is no virtue that adds so noble a charm to the finest traits of beauty as that which exerts itself on watching over the tranquility of an aged parent. There are no tears that can give so well as a lustre to the cheek of innocence as the tears of filial sorrow.

10

Happiness and virtue are twin sisters which can never be divided. They are born & flourish or sicken & die together. They are offsprings of good sense & innocence & while they continue under the guidance of such parents, they are invulnerable to injury & incapable of decay.

11

Human happiness has no perfect security but freedom; freedom not but virtue; virtue none but knowledge; neither freedom nor virtue nor knowledge has any vigor or immortal hope except in the principles of the Christian father & in the sanctions of the Christian religion.

12

Good nature is the best feature in the finest face. Wit may raise admiration, judgment may command respect & knowledge attention; beauty may inflame the heart with love; but good nature has a more powerful effect: it adds a thousand attractions to the charms of beauty & gives an air of beneficence to the most homely face.

13

Tell me whom you live with and I will tell you who you are.

14

She that e____ another should lead the way herself.

“Woodvale!”

Friday evening  Sept. 22nd ’66

Woodvale! Place of my birth and home of my early youth! In a short time again must I bid thee a silent adieu, again leave thy peaceful haunts to mingle with the gay and thoughtless youth of my village ho__. Probably I shall never visit thee again _____ such pleasant circumstances never indulge again. The delightful rambles or enjoy again the numerous means of pleasure which thy sacred bounds afford. Perhaps too before I return, thy only link in the chain now that unites us to this loved spot will be broken and then —– but I can go no further. The thought is too painful to bee indulged therefore I instantly banish it beside sorrow often comes at such an hour and in such a form as we least expect and for this reason apprehending trouble before it comes causes much unnecessary unhappiness.

 (The bottom half of this page is torn out.)

Laconic  sentences & ___

Nobility is a river that sets with a constant and undeviating current, directly on to the greatPacific oceanof time. But unlike all other rivers it is more grand at its source than at its termination.

When you have nothing to say, say nothing; a weak defense strengthens your opponent, and silence is her infusions (?) m___ a late reply.

Imitation is the sincerest of flattery.

Tis always safe to learn even from our enemies. Seldom safe to ___ to instruct even our friends.

Vice stings us even in our pleasures but virtue consoles us even _______ pains. (The bottom of this page is torn off.)

Awkward bashfulness is as ridiculous as true modesty is commendable.

The wise man his follies no less than the fool, but it has been said that herein lies the difference–the follies of the fool are known to the world, but are hidden from himself. The follies of the wise are known to himself but hidden from the world.

A harmless hilarity and a buoyant cheerfulness are not infrequent concomitants of genius & we are never more deceived than when we mistake gravity for greatness, solemnly for science, pomposity for erudition.

The last day we attended school our Latin Teacher gave us some ideas in regard to the origin of the heathen deities. The parents of Saturn, the father of the other gods were Uranus and Titean meaning heaven and earth the descendants were called Titans. They were all however dethroned by Saturn with the assistance of his son Jubiter (She spelled it with a B). Saturn declared that he would never raise any male children and would have eaten them all up but his wife gave him rocks to eat and in this way she pre__ed the likes of her three sons Jubiter, Neptune, & Pluto. These united and overthrew their father and divided the kingdom between themselves, Jubiter reigning in Heaven, Neptune the sea and Pluto the Infernal regions.

Juno was the daughter of Saturn, married her brother Jubiter, noted for her jealousy. Venus is said to have sprung from the sea nearCythera. Very much in love with Adonis. Mars, Mercury & Anchises (?). She was the goddess of beauty & love, mother of Aeneas, the hero of Virgil, & Cupid. She was given to Vulcan as a punishment by Jubiter.

Vulcan was the god of blacksmiths. His name is supposed to be derived from two Latin words Vallo & ignis, meaning fire-fly.

Pan was the god of shepherds and from his name is derived the word panic. He made an instrument of reeds which was used to frighten and ____ an enemy when seen to approach. Hence when a body of men is thrown into confusion we say there is a panic among them.

The other gods and goddesses were descended from these mentioned and were assigned to their places by Jubiter who was supreme god. Such was the superstition of the ancients.

“What would my mother think…”

Friday evening, September 1st

How time flies! A few more years of toil & sorrows and we shall pass into eternity. The question that naturally arises at this moment is am I prepared for this approaching change? Am I living in such a manner that I shall be ready to give a strict account for “the deeds done in the body?” Alas I fear not! Too numerous to mention are my daily yea hourly sins. How hard it is for me to do right; for “when I would do good, evil is ever present with me.” Ah! how easily am I enticed from the path of duty by the allurements of sin & folly.

My books too of late have been sadly neglected & I fear sometimes I am going backward instead of forward in the progress of knowledge and ah this mourn__ ___ent bitterly ____ feel a sense of my ignorance, my nothing ___. Yet I might not despair for I am resolved to do better, to spend my time more profitably. What would my mother think did she know how I have been wasting my precious time since I left her? Mortifying indeed would it be to her. Therefore for  her sake, if not my own, I shall endeavor to keep my resolution.

“my dear grandmother is prostrated on a bed of sickness…”

Friday morning, Woodvale, August 28 (25?)

Ah! my neglected journal. When sorrows come and other friends forsake me, then do I turn to thee for relief, then burden they pages with tales of grief. But today let me pause and think calmly why it is that I fell so depressed. Alas the reason soon dispersed–or for at this moment–my dear grandmother is prostrated on a bed of sickness, probably never to rise from it again. At this however though tis hard to bear. I will not murmur for it is the Lord’s will. “Blessed be his name.”

The next thing that disturbs me is my own sinfulness. “O wretched being that I am.” Who shall deliver me from the wrath of a just God? I often fear (and wretched is the thought) that there can be no mercy left for such a sinful and depraved mortal as I. But Lord help me. If I perish, I will pray and perish only at the “throne of Grace.”

Would that I could banish the gloom which hovers over me, but it seems that I am doomed to be miserable and the horrid thought cannot as least at present be shaken off.

Time will I hope heal all my sorrows and restore peace once again to my troubled breast.

There are many other things that trouble me but I have indulged long enough in the sadness and will now endeavor to commit myself into the hands of God. Knowing that He doeth all things well, I must now return to my dear grandmother and let nothing in my power be wanting to make her comfortable.

“The Opinions of a Learned Man”

Monday morning—–Aug. 14th

Two weeks have elapsed since last wrote in my journal, and yet their impress has not been lost. For they have been frighted (?) with many pleasures & sorrows. These however I will not recount here as it would be irksome. But will spend for a few moments in writing in order that I may remember them, the opinions of a learned man on reading and other modes improving the time allotted to be in you for that purpose.

In the first place, he says a man is known by the company he keeps, that that the same is true of books. Like confidential associates they exist as such powerful influence & then impress good or bad is legibly stamped on the character when of an unfavorable tendency the h_____ often unseen and unfelt till it has infected every avenue of moral life, till resistance and remedy are taken unavailing. Works of fiction, says he, are by no means to him exclusively condemned. Familiar stories, interesting tales adapted to the capacity of children have a happy influence in withdrawing the mind from toys & trifles to something intellectual and of the same time in conveying useful & important instruction. (This page is cut off at the center on some words.) But there is another class of fictitious writings which have too much attraction for you. The imagination is so perfectly charmed that whenever the truth, or error, they contain passes unheeded (?). The mind being only intent on the ___.

“There are some ___ ___” you peruse there pr__tions without detriment, perhaps to advantage, but it’s in cases where the love or pursuit of truth is the main principle of the soul. Such a one will ___ her out: though obscured by the subtleties of skepticism or clad in the trappings of folly.

But when the fondness for knowledge is just budding into life, where the labor of useful acquirement is no longer irksome, but begins to be a pleasure, how much to be appreciated? Is any circumstance timid (?) to obstruct as happy a prospect of height such high-raised hopes? Again he says “ I have seen m___ whose diligence & industry had given rise to the highest experiences, but the mind from in _____ reading, receiving an unfavorable impress. They never offer advanced  one step in the path of wisdom and knowledge.

A taste for fictitious writings too early & too eagerly indulged is a fatalism ____. You will eventually acquire a distaste for profitable employment and abandon that kind of pursuit which is suited to give you eminence in society.

“There is more danger” says he “to be apprehended in relation to our sex than to the other. They are subjected to a longer and ____ course of study and may on towards be, entirely dependent on their talents and learning for the means of living or at for their standings and influence in society. Experience some teachers them that the exclusive perusal of novels is not the rough and thorny road to the temple of fame.

Nor is the reading of such authors required to give you a knowledge of human nature on to guard you against the wiles of the designing and the wicked. If called upon to select a subject for composition, says he. I would point to that individual whose days and nights were devoid to works of fiction. We sometimes remarked that they afford relaxation and are useful in giving an impulse to the imagination. This may be true where a habit of application has ____ or firmly rooted to render it in a manner a con____ent of the mind itself. But youth have too much imagination. They already live in an ideal life, and it is the object of academic discipline to give the ascendancy to the powers of the understanding. And further he makes a nice distinction between two states of the imagination, which are as far divergent, and as unlike in their effects and operation as truth and error, wisdom and folly. The one is a wayward fancy, indulging in revery, the companion of ignorance, (heaving us hither and thither of will, rendering the thinking faculties wholly unmanageable and incapable of literary effort.

But when this ‘creative power’ is hastened by reflection and from continued and aware application subjected to control its utility and importance cannot be overstated or (this page is cut off at the crease on some words) __ceived. It is the source of every embellishment of whatever is rich and luxuriant in language & is the foundation of everything beautiful in description or sublime in conception.

“We should therefore appreciate the importance of being watchful (oh my) of fixing sufficiently guarded against the pursuit (?) of any course which will carry us downward instead of upward in the call of improvement, and hasty he advises in the further progress of knowledge not to read voluminous works in which there is as much speculation as historic record’ but rather histories which are condensed and abridged. Voyages and travels well selected are interesting annals will sufficiently amuse and at the same time afford instruction.”

My heart responds to every word here written and oh may I adopt these opinions as my own and take this advice now while I have time to retrace the steps I have made beyond its li___.

She begins with a disclaimer about skipped pages….

N.B.  July 19th

These pages were skipped through mistake & have no connection with the preceding nor those that follow.

Oh! deem not that earth’s crowning bliss
Is found in joy alone;
For sorrow, bitter though it be,
Hath blessings all its own. 

From lips divine, like healing balm
To heart’s oppressed & torn
The heavenly consolation fell—
“Blessed are they that mourn.” 

Who never mourned hath never known
What treasures grief reveals,
The sympathies that humanize,
The tenderness that heals. 

The power to look within the veil,
And learn the heavenly love,
The key word to life’s mysteries
So dark to us before. 

How rich & sweet and full of strength
Our human spirits are
Baptized into the sanctities
Of suffering & of prayer! 

(The first five stanzas are from a hymn by W. H. Burleigh, a Unitarian.)

Supernal wisdom, love Divine
Breathed through the lips which said,
“O blessed are the souls that mourn.
They shall be comforted.” 

“To the lover of nature every season has its charms. The summer is the high  noon of the year. Autumn its sober decline. Winter its night of gloom while the spring is the fresh morning, the day dawn of the annual circle.”

 “A false friend is like a shadow on a dial, it appears in clear weather, but vanishes as soon as a cloud approaches.”

“I think, oh, we never know how to appreciate the love of a friend till deprived of it.”

July 6th 1866 Woodvale (Virginia)

Would I have believed that the bright anticipation & fond delights so long held in expectation, I could have been so quickly hurled to the dust and that by ___ such of mine. Yes, though sad in reality, it is nevertheless time in an unguarded moment, I offended and consequently estranged from my self the love of one whom I esteemed my dearest friend. Is not the remorse of a criminal sufficient retraction? Ah! Yes the mental agony of a convicted culprit is suffering indeed. And yet, does it seem to me that my grief at this moment is less acute than his? I think, oh, we never know how to appreciate the love of a friend till deprived of it.

“only a few moments…China”

(Note: I love this entry. Alice writes that she has “only a few moments” for her journal, but then she writes just under 20 handwritten pages about the country of China. It speaks of her love of knowledge. There’s a section on the mistreatment of women in China where she seems to become quite outraged. I’m unsure of many of the spellings and am unable to check them without having a copy of “Scenes of China” to reference as many of the Chinese names she mentions would have different spellings/names in modern times.)

Tuesday Morning, June 27th

I have only a few moments to devote to my dear book this morning, and indeed this, not my proper time for writing, still I have so many things to commit to its leaves that I cannot refrain from the pleasure even if my time is limited. I am reading a book called “Scenes in China” and as I have gained a good many facts worthy of my attention, I will note them down before reading further. The Roman, Grecian, Persian, Babylonian or Assyrian & Chinese Empires were contemporaries. The latter still lives in vigor while the former exist only in name. China is supposed to have been settled by a colony from Egypt under the jurisdiction of one of the Haltemas (?), and they called the country Siara (?). It was called “Tsinin” by the Arabs.

The origin of its present name is not fully known. It is thought however that the Portuguese who were the first merchants from Europe that traded with the Chinese and come (?) in contact with the Arabians and changed “Ts” into “Ch” and thus the country was called Chinian by them and from this it is probable that the English word China is derived .

The history of the “tea dynasty” (Hea?) inChinais the oldest record of events extant excepting the Bible.Chinawas at first divided into independent states. Afterwards they consolidated in order to keep off their enemies, the Tartar, and for this reason also the walls ofChinawere built. The Empire was taken, however, by the Manchaen (sp?) Tartars 1643.

Sunche (?) was the first emporer of the Tartan dynasty. Kanghe the 2nd he encouraged liberal (?) Young Ching 3rd Keen Tung 4th The empire was more extensive during his reign than before or after. Keaking 5th Toun Kwange. This name signified “The glory of reason.”

The emperors names is considered so sacred among the Chinese that it is called profanity if the people use them. Hence when an emperor commences his reign, he assumes another title by which he is called during his life. The government of China is despotic. It is divided into 18 provinces & contains in all sixty two millions of inhabitants.

Cantonor (Knangtung?) is better known to the Europeans & Americans than any other province inChina, & one of the greatest emporium of Asian. Kwaugse produces much grain. The mountains in this province abound in one. These however are not worked very extensively, as husbandry is considered among the Chinese, the most honorable employment.  Nanking was once the capital (?)  was abandoned for Peking. Farkkun (?) was under its jurisdiction. The island of Hormosa. It is one of the most ___ islands in the world. It has been called a granary of Fah keen (?). Leo in the ancient of Shangking (?) was the birthplace of Conly (?).

The written language ofChinais _____ble to the inhabitants ofJapan. Conchine C Lochess (?) & Corea, but the pronunciation of the aders (?) differs widely, thought the meaning same. The whole number of characters is of eighty thousand, but a knowledge of four thousand is sufficient for all purposes. There are two hundred and fourteen icols (?) and one or more of these enter into character of the language, and the characters are arranged accordingly under their appropriate radicals in the dictionary.

There are 400 different sounds and the are too many words between whose sounds there is a slight difference. That two was often used to express the same idea. Their word “yung” means “everlastin” and “green” __ “never-ending,” but when the idea of “eternal” or “eternity” is to be conveyed. Yung & yuen both used. The ___s are called the alphabet. There are 3 systems of religion, or philosophy, orig. that of Confucius, Budh or Frek (?) & Taori (?). Confuscianism is the religion of the higher classes. “Kangafootare” (?) or “Confucious” (as the Latins have changed the original) flourished 580 B.C.  & was a contemporary with Pythagoras. He was the son of an eminent statesman and chief minister of state. He devoted himself early in life to moral & political science. Being averse to the ordinary pursuits & amusements of youth. He is styled the “Most Holy Teacher” of ancient times, his books have been compiled & are considered the Holy Scriptures of the Chinese Empire. He was more political than religious, did not acknowledge God, his doctrines being unaided by divine revelation we incapable of causing his followers to lives of common moralities. Pride. Sefl-righteousness. Inconsistency. Hungering & thirsting after gain are the most prominent characteristics of his followers. More than 1500 temples were dedicated to Confucious. 62,000 victims were sacrificed to him annually.

(The right hand side of this page is cut off slightly. )

The religion of Budh was in China 65 years after the Christian era. Spread by means of tracts. This form of religion r___ bl___ very much, tho Roman Catholic. Thah of Tam (?), so called from the name of its founder, inculcated contemporary worldly honors. The priest styled themselves “Doctors of reason,” also “Celestial Teachers.” They __tended to magic and endeavored to _____ the “elixir of long life.” Tam (?) himself is the Chinese Epicurus. Confucianism has no pr___ except the Emperor.

Pagodas were introduced with Budh hence they were dedicated to that deity.

The form of the Chinese tomb is like the Greek first letter omega, which circumstance considering the grave is the end of man’s earthly career, and that the Greeks use this letter to signify termination. It may be regarded as a striking coincidence.

The 6th of Feb here corresponds with the Chinese new year. Only one coin used by the Chinese called by them (?) by us “cash.” It is composed of tutenago (?) and copper. Worth a thousandth part of a dollar. In counting ten cash make a condarin ten condarins one m__l to m__l one ___. In payments of gold and silver they receive it according to its weight.

“Mandarin”—Webster in defining this word says it is a Chinese magistrate or governor or a province, this strictly spreading is not the meaning of this word, it is derived from the Portugeuse, Mandar (to send) and means any commissioned officer of whatever rank (?) in the Chinese government.

There are nine ranks of mandarins each of which is distinguished by a peculiar ____ or button set in the front of the cap. The Chinese have a peculiar antipathy toward using the term “death.” When they speak of a deceased friend they say, “He has made himself absent,” sometimes “he has gone to ramble on the gems” At other times they say “he is transpired and gone.” And again “he has refediched (?) the world. On the death of the Emperor Kea King, the official ministers wishing to announce his demise to the nation, said “he has become a guest of heaven.” The emperor styles himself “God’s __gerent (?) on earth” and his county the Celestial Empire.” Also calls himself the high priest of the nation, and the only mediator between God & man. Jesus is ranked among their gods & is represented as a little boy with a Chinese hat and dress. He is also Yay-soo which means Jesus, or Saviour. Besides this there is a very remarkable account of our saviour among the Chinese which they obtained from the Western nations. It bears a close analogy in every respect to the history of Him in the Bible.

Wanfoo, a renowned Chinese statesman flourished about 2500 years ago. He had many enemies although he executed his duties faithfully. Their slanders preyed so heavily upon his sensitive mind that he drowned himself. The anniversary of this event occurs in June and is celebrated in commemoration of him. It is called the festival of Dragons after a kind of boat in which he was fond of sailing.

Chinese ships are called lunks (?). Remarkable on account of their large ___ber & peculiar construction. The hull is somewhat like a Chinese shoe, has a flat bottom without a keel, is div. off into boxes, so that if the ship leaks the water cannot be comm___. The sails are made of mats sewed together. The most distinguishing (?) feature commen___ with the _____ is the ideology. The god of the sea is called “Tunhow.” (?) Every ship is furnished with one of these idols and many other inferior images. They never spread a sail without seeking the favour of their gods, nor return without manifesting great gratitude to the stocks & stones which can neither see, hear, feel, nor, walk.

If then these wretched idolaters feel that there are beings superior to themselves on whom they depend for prosperity, if they are expert in performing ceremonies & in praying adoration to these images which can not alleviate their sorrows, what should the Christian be? What the conduct of those who in reality know that they are dependent on a “Superior Being.” Distressing is the reflction that more attention is paid to these images than to the Great Ruler of the Universe.

Teas is cultivated inChina&Japan. The shrub attains the height of 5 or 6 ft, thrives from 10 to 20 yrs, uninferred (?) by heat or cold. The bamboo, is one of the most useful trees inChina, used for ornament & comfort. Its roots & seeds are used for food.

The banrus champhora, or champhortrico is found in the southern part of China & grows to the height of 50 ft. The gum we use is secured from the under branches of the tree, by boiling it in water & purifying it. Fruits are very abundant in China. The most extraordinary  is the flat peach. Flowers also are very numerous. China is sometimes called “The Flowery Land.” Opium is the juice of a species of poppy which is cultivated in China,Turkey, &India. Uses to great excess by the inhabitants of these countries. Rice is the principle food among the Chinese. It is to them as bread is to us. “The staff of life.”  Tea is the principle drink. It is used by all classes. There is less drunkenness among the Chinese than almost any nation in the world but when they do drink to excess they keep it secret therefore a drunken man is a rare sight.

The cruel custom of compressing the feet is said to have origins during the reign of “Take,” the last empress of the Shang dynasty 1123. She being dissatisfied with her feet, which were naturally small endeavored to render them still smaller by tightly compressing them, and from her example other females were induced to the same. There are various opinions however with regard to this custom. It is supposed by some that it was designed for the sole purpose of rendering women more easily confined at home & kept under the constant subjecting of men. (Note: The handwriting speeds up here and gets smaller and more hastily written until the end of the entry.) By this act of inhumanity the poor creatures are made cripple for life. The females of China are very degraded & neglected. Seldom can a Chinese woman be met who can read the simplest book in her own language & while much money is spent in education the beloved son. The daughter is suffered to grow up in ignorance. In receiving a ___artever (?) for live she has nothing to say. She is disposed of by her parents for that sum of money which they see fit to request. She is conveyed to the house of the man to whom she is to be wedded & perhaps sees him for the first time in her life. And thought separated from her parents, she shares not the pleasures or privileges of a wife. Her husband looks upon her as far inferior to himself & she receives from him corresponding treatment. By all classes of males in China, females have been regarded with contempt. Religion is denied them. Rise, run, work, eat little, spend little, be silent, kept out of sight, obey, bear & rather bleed & die than complain, is the language of the rules laid down for their treatment.

Sculpture—There are no roman__ obelisks inChinato record the mystic events of the future nor does the past nor present history give any assurance of the fine arts having more either numerous or enthusiastic admirers & besides every effort __ on their part to be wiser or more skillfull ___ __ discouragement. In vain does the traveler search for those well turned & still enduring arches & proud marble columns on which he is w___ ___gage amidst. The ruins of Greek & Rome.

The paper used inChinais made of bamboo. ____ is sometimes mixed with it. The mode of printing inChinais far different from ours. They have no presses. A hard board an inch high is place & squared in the size of two pages. It is prepared for the reception of the character by ___ing the surface with a paste made of boiled rice.  The characters are written on a thin paper & pasted in the book, but in an inverted position. The paper is scrubbed off leaving the impression of the inverted characters. The workman then with a sharp instrument cuts away all the wood except that which is inverted with the characters. The block is fastened to a bench & dipping a brush in ink it is __bled over the characters. The paper to be printed is then placed on & rubbed with a dry brush & then removed, every ___ under goes this process. This is done with astonishing exprediction (?). All the leaves are folded d___ & are not cut apart the paper being so thin only one side is written upon. Chinese ink is made by placing over a stencil with oil with wicks ___ lit. A cover of iron in the shape of a funnel, while it receives the smoke from the wicks and consumes lamp, black together & form a coat. This is scraped off and mixed with gum & put in a mortar where it is well disabled (?)together.  It is then place in moulds made for the purpose. This is called “India ink.”

Chinese society is divided into 4 classes.

1st–Literary

2nd—Agricultural

3rd—Mechanics

4th—Buying & Selling (?). This distinction is truly philosophical ____ but is certainly peculiar to the Chinese. Chinese poetry is very complicated in style, measure, & subjects. Blank verse & rhyme equally abound. The most venerated & ancient poem now extant in the empire is the classic poem of Confucious. It is called by them The King.

The great Wall & canal of Chinast and unrivaled by any other works of the kind in the world, in extent & magnitude, built ___ years ago by the order of the 1st Monarch of the whole of the empire. The wall is 1100 ___5000 ft above level of the sea. The canal is also very grand & beautiful.

Conclusion. The external marks of a Chinese gentleman are long fingernails—those of a lady—cramped feet and a miserable gait. Their dates begin where ours end. Thus they say 17th year, 9th month, 25 day. (?) Their writing cross the pages from top to bottom & their books begin where ours end. The mariners compass was used in China long before it was thought of in Europe, though they have always regarded the south as the grand point of attraction. They say east south & east north for north & south east. White is considered mourning in China. In contradiction to everything in the Chinese insider. The left hand the seat (?) of humour.

“…the marauding host was pillaging the house of my poor old grandmother.”

Monday Evening, June 26th

Today one year ago our hearts were filled with suspense & fearful foreboding. Our cruel foe was then desolating our land and we were hourly expecting them to disturb the quiet of our little town, and yet sadder still would we have been could we have know what was at that time transpiring at dear “Woodvale.” Little did I think that the marauding host was pillaging the house of my poor old grandmother.

Oh selfish being that I am! To think of any own sorrows alone in the hour of woe! Oh! that I could feel with noble self sacrificing Josephine that the only “comfort in seasons of trial” is to mourn over the griefs of other.” (I am wondering however.) For that grief was in mercy concealed from us till we were better nerved to endure the shock and our enemy was suddenly turned from his intended course and did not pass through our town.

But alas! How have our hopes been crushed since then. Though we were laboring under many disadvantages at that time, still we were hopeful, ___ nation, and believed that our noble little confederacy would triumph over her overwhelming foes. Yet God permitted the reverse, to be the case, and we His children should submit to His decrees remembering that “He does all this well.” And that “He does not willingly afflict the children men.”

Fortitude is one of the noblest virtues appertaining to the human character & stamps upon them who pursue it an unfading luster which does honour to the name of man. He who labors under the lash of adversity & bears up against his misfortunes with a pious resignation must be pleasing to the Supreme Being while his conduct is universally admired by his fellow creatures.